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Cairo is the capital of Egypt and is the largest city in Africa, as well as the Middle East. Its name means "the victorious city" and it is known locally as "Misr", the Arabic name for Egypt. This is because of its centrality in Egyptian life.
With the desert to the east, south, and west, and the north bounded by the fertile Nile delta, Cairo spreads itself across both banks of the River Nile, covering an area of more than 453Km2 (175 miles2), though sometimes it can be difficult to separate the city from some of its suburbs. Though the city itself is reasonably modern, it was not built until circa 973, the area has had settlements that date back to before the Old Kingdom, with Heliopolis being the site of an ancient Sun Temple, nearby Memphis being the capital of Egypt until the Greek Period and of course the settlements that existed in the time of the Giza Pyramids.
Greater Cairo is spread across three of Egypt's administrative governorates. Two of these, Cairo and Giza, are “one city” Governorates, whilst the third, Qalyubia Governorate, encompasses the lands to the north-eastern part of the area. There are also several river islands in the city, which play an important role in its life. As the region's principal commercial, administrative, and tourist centre, Cairo contains many cultural institutions, business establishments, governmental offices, universities, and hotels, which together create a dense pattern of constant activity.The city is marked by the traditions and influences of the East and the West, the ancient and the modern. However, the city also reflects Egypt's growing poverty, and it struggles to cope with problems caused by massive population growth, urban sprawl, and a deteriorating infrastructure. The centre of downtown Cairo is Tahrir Square, located on the east bank. A hub of tourist activity, the vast and open square contains numerous attractions, including the Egyptian Museum, the Arab League headquarters, and the modern Omar Makram Mosque. It is here that the peaceful protests of early 2011 occurred. Extending from north to south along the east bank of the River Nile is the Corniche, Cairo's main thoroughfare. Located nearby is the narrow strip of land known as Garden City, one of the city's newer residential areas. In the centre of the city is the river island of Zamalek (also called Jezerah, meaning "the Island"), which contains the upscale residential and commercial neighbourhood also known as Zamalek, the Cairo Opera House (founded in 1869), and the Cairo Tower (1961). Three bridges link the island with both banks of the river. The island of Al-Rodah, located to the south, is linked to the mainland by two additional bridges, while another bridge to the north carries road and rail traffic across the Nile. Outside the city's central area on the east bank, spanning from the northeast to the southeast, are the neighbourhoods of Islamic Cairo. These neighbourhoods are known for their narrow streets, crowded markets (bazaars), and hundreds of Mosques, many dating back to the medieval period. South of the Islamic district is Old Cairo, where some of the city's oldest architectural monuments can be found. Old Cairo is the home of Cairo's Coptic Christian community, and the site of the Coptic Museum, plus a number of Coptic churches.
The irrigation of Cairo's desert periphery has allowed for the development of suburbs, such as Heliopolis, located to the northeast. Other modern suburbs are interspersed with recently created migrant neighbourhoods that accommodate the city's growing population. Industrial areas further crowd the city, restricting its growth. An international airport serves Cairo, situated approximately 24 km (about 15 m) northeast of the city; the Ramses railway station and the Cairo Gateway (El-Torgoman) bus terminal are located near downtown Cairo.
Cairo is the chief commercial and industrial centre of Egypt. Local industries manufacture cotton textiles, food products, construction supplies, motor vehicles, aircraft, and chemical fertilizers. Iron and steel are produced at the south part just outside the city. Cairo is also a centre for government activities and service industries. Because of the city's warm climate and numerous historical and cultural attractions, tourism plays an important role in its economy. Cairo receives goods shipped on the Nile at the river port, located at the northern end of the city. From Cairo, products are sent by road, railroad, and waterway to the Mediterranean ports of Alexandria and Port Said. The city is connected by train service to other major cities. Traffic congestion is a growing problem in Cairo, but it is the only city in the Middle East and Africa that has a subway. This subway system opened in the city in 1987 carrying about 2 million passengers everyday. Lately a second line has been opened, linking the old line with the western superb in the west bank (Giza). A third line is still under construction which will connect Cairo airport to the city centre, terminating in the busy suburb of Imbaba.
In 1998 Cairo was estimated to have a population of 16 million. The people of Cairo are known as Cairenes and nearly all of them are Egyptians with just a small number of foreigners. The city is an important centre of the Islamic faith, and Cairenes are predominantly Sunni Muslims; however, the city is also home to a sizable Coptic community, which traces its origins to the Christians who populated Cairo before the arrival of Islam. Cairo's population swells daily as workers flow into the city from the surrounding area, clogging roads and rail lines every morning and evening. Many Cairenes are recent arrivals from villages along the Nile. These rural migrants arrive with few skills or resources, and compound the existing problems of unemployment and scarce housing.
Education And Culture
The most famous educational institution in Cairo is the Al-Azhar University, the oldest in the Islamic world. The institution has grown up around the Al-Azhar Mosque, the oldest Mosque in Cairo. The Fatimid founded both the university and Mosque in 970. Al-Azhar University is an authoritative voice throughout the Islamic world, and its positions on important issues are influential in Egypt and the Arab world. Other institutions of higher education include Cairo University (Founded in1908) and Ain Shams University (1950), which together enrols more than 100,000 students; and the American University in Cairo, founded in 1919, where the children of Egypt's elite mingle with students and faculty from abroad. Egyptian history is displayed and preserved in the city's numerous Museum collections. The Egyptian Museum (Founded in 1902) contains hundreds of thousands of artefacts, including more than 1700 pieces from the collection of Tutankhamen. The Museum of Islamic Arts (1881) contains a vast collection relating to early Islamic civilization, and the Coptic Museum (1910) traces the history of the Coptic community in Egypt. Other Cairo Museums maintain collections relating to more modern themes; these range from the El-Gawhara Palace Museum, built in 1811 in the Ottoman style, to the Mahmoud Khalil Museum, founded in 1963, which contains works by Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Peter Paul Rubens, and other European and Egyptian painters of renown.
Avoid traveling during the “The Khamsin wind” season that runs between March and April, though it only takes a few days and you can handle that so easily ... it is quite an adventure! !!
The Khamsin wind is a warm wind that blows in from the desert, carrying sand and dust!
Cairo short stay tour 03 Days/02 Nights
3 nights Cairo tour 04 Days/03 Nights
Cairo, & Alexandria tour 6 Days/05 Nights
Cairo long stay 6 Days/05 Nights
Cairo, cruising the Nile 07 Days/6 Nights
Memorable trip 07 Days / 06 Nights
Across the Nile river 08 Days/07 Nights
The land of pharohs 09 Days / 08 Nights
leisure at red sea, Alexandria 10 D/09 N
Egypt dream tour 11 Days / 10 Nights
Budget package 12 Days/11 Nights
Nile supreme 12 Days/11 Nights
Wonders of Egypt 14 Days/13 Nights
The ancient Egypt 14 Days/13 Nights
Beach soul 15 Days/14 Nights
Cairo, long cruise, & Alexandria 15 D/14 N
Explore Egypt 16 Days/15 Nights
Spiritual-Holy land 16 Days/15 Nights
Around Egypt 18 Days/17 Nights
Around Egypt & Petra 20 Days/19 Nights
Around Egypt & Jordan 26 Days/25 Night